OT in NT (9): Conclusion


When surveying the verbal changes made by NT authors in their use of the LXX, several patterns emerge. Firstly, in general, the form of verb chosen by the NT author mirrors the content. That is, the point of the passage or clause is not proven by the choice of verbal aspect, but the writer’s intent […]

OT in NT (8): Verbal Aspect Notes

For those interested in how verbal aspect figures in this, here are some more general conclusions based on all the cases where the NT cites the LXX and changes the verb form but retains the same lexeme. Future/Aorist Opposition Future/aorist oppositions are the most common in such passages. Alongside the aspectual change, a sizeable majority […]

OT in NT (7b): Examples — Heb 10:16–17

ὅτι αὕτη ἡ διαθήκη, ἣν διαθήσομαι τῷ οἴκῳ Ισραηλ μετὰ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐκείνας, φησὶ κύριος Διδοὺς δώσω νόμους μου εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν γράψω αὐτούς· … καὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν οὐ μὴ μνησθῶ ἔτι. “Instead, this is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after those days”—the LORD’S […]

OT in NT (7a): The church is the fulfilment of promises

Fourthly, and finally, God’s work in the church is taken to be not only in line with but also the fulfilment of the OT promises made concerning Israel. New Testament authors therefore change temporal markers and viewpoint on occasion to mark what God has completed in us through Christ. The writer to the Hebrews, for […]

OT in NT (6b): Examples — Acts 1:20; 7:5, 40; 1 Cor 5:13

These examples give some more detail concerning the continuity of God’s people. Acts 1:20 καὶ τὴν ἐπισκοπὴν αὐτοῦ λάβοι ἕτερος· … let another take over his position. Psalm 109:8 (LXX 108:8) τὴν ἐπισκοπὴν αὐτοῦ λαβέτω ἕτερος. … let another take his position. Acts 1:20 The verbal change we are concerned with here is from the […]

OT in NT (5b): Examples — Matt 13:14 || Mark 4:12 || Luke 8:10 || Acts 28:26; Romans 9:33/10:11

What follows here are some examples that deal with the presence or proximity of the kingdom of God. Matthew 13:14 || Mark 4:12 || Luke 8:10 || Acts 28:26 Πορεύθητι καὶ εἰπὸν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ Ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε· Go! Say to these people: Keep listening, […]

OT in NT (5a): The arrival of the eschatological age

Verbal changes are also used to mark the presence or the proximity of the kingdom of God. This eschatological age is marked both by temporal reference and by spatial reference, lending urgency and a progressive nature to understanding the present time. Again, this is part of the interpretation of the NT that Jesus, as the […]

OT in NT (4b): Examples — Luke 23:46; John 2:17

Here are a couple of more in-depth discussions of how Jesus is shown as the righteous sufferer par excellence, the anti-type of David. Luke 23:46 εἰς χεῖράς σου παραθήσομαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου· Into Your hand I entrust my spirit; Psalm 31:5 (LXX 30:6) πάτερ, εἰς χεῖράς σου παρατίθεμαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου. Father, into Your hands […]

OT in NT (4a): Jesus the promised Servant-Messiah

Moving to what can be said of Jesus’ and the NT writers’ approach to Scripture, it seems they felt free to use it poetically, typologically, and prophetically. The OT is not the complete revelation of God, for he has now spoken to us by the Son (cf. Heb 1:1—4). Those who cite the Old Testament […]

OT in NT (3): Method — Which OT Text(s)?


The New Testament was originally written in Greek, and modern English versions have this Greek text as the basis for their translation. The Old Testament, however, is a bit more complex. Originally it was written in Hebrew (and Aramaic for some small sections). Some time later a translation was made into Greek (the Septuagint) for […]

OT in NT (2): Background — Why look at quotations?

In Christian circles the assumption that the Old Testament is crucial for an understanding of Jesus and New Testament Christology is virtually undisputed. Use of Scripture is evident in the thought of the New Testament writers, shaping not only their interpretation of biblical history but present ecclesiology and eschatology. At many points allusions to this […]

OT in NT: Introduction


My (recently completed) major final-year Moore College project looked at instances where the New Testament quotes the Old Testament but changes it in some way. In particular, I looked at places where the verb form is changed – like changing a past tense to a future tense, for example.[1] These sections are often puzzling parts […]

Thanks, Dan.


From a friend’s final-year project (read: thesis) at MTC:

Unequal and Different?


This week at College we’ve been praying for the students leaving at the end of the year (myself included). People are leaving from all stages. The 1-year course, the Diploma of Bible and Missions, generally has lots of people returning to the workforce or to family and church life with a spouse in one of […]

Greek Folly

Gregory of Nazianzus, on Greek: Why, every one knows that in practice we very often find tenses interchanged when time is spoken of; and especially is this the custom of Holy Scripture, not only in respect of the past tense, and of the present; but even of the future, as for instance “Why did the […]